After reviewing and systematizing some major opportunities and mechanisms of a polycentric approach to climate governance, we turn to its limitations and main challenges for application. In addition, mitigation preferences are shaped by factors beyond the sheer site-specific maximization of static utility functions. Historical experiences—for example, the formation of green movements or singular catastrophic events like the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster—can also motivate changes in preferences . The locally or regionally diverging preference structures resulting from different conditions and historical experiences can lead to differences in the preferred—and politically feasible—designs of mitigation policies that take these site-specific features into account. Instead of underlining the cooperation dilemma primarily at the international level, the main problem addressed in this approach is the self-organization and ongoing coordinative adaptation of these multiple actors. Charlotte Bungard, general manager of Interactive Accounting, chats with us about steps her firm has taken to ensure outsourcing was going to be successful, interview screening questions, and appointing a local leader for the global team. Interactive Accounting helps its clients build more scalable businesses using cloud-based technology for their given industry.
Behavioral changes as well as policies can have adverse as well as beneficial side effects, influencing the behavior of others in ways that can increase or decrease GHG emissions. For example, introducing a regional emission cap can result in emission growth outside the region . Also, in the face of a collective emission cap, subsidiary actors would be unable to achieve additional, unilateral emissions reductions, because this simply frees up emission permits for their use by others, leaving the aggregate emissions as fixed by the cap, unchanged (Burtraw and Woerman 2013; Goulder and Stavins 2011). Recognizing such effects stimulates the search for policy design proposals that will address the effects of such interaction and enable subsidiary jurisdictions to effectively express their preferences. For example, a minimum price in cap-and-trade systems or a carbon tax would enable effective additional emissions reductions by subsidiary actors willing to do so .
For example, we have developed a survey of open research practices that we will deploy across reproducibility networks, with a view to benchmarking the current state of open research practices within and across countries. This will allow us to evaluate the impact of our activity over time and monitor change.
TOA Global provides outsourcing services and highly skilled individuals for IT, accounting, marketing, and administration roles. The company supports over 600 accounting companies in Australia and other countries like New Zealand, Canada, and the US. Andrew Haynes, founder of Kindred Accounting, shares with us how he developed his offshore strategy, why his offshore team is the right fit for his business and the opportunities that outsourcing can bring not just to business owners but also to team members. Kindred Accounting help business owners handle cash flow so they can make a tidy profit and enjoy more freedom. Our initial focus was on growing our community—local networks, institutions, and sectoral organisations. To that end, we deliberately adopted a light touch approach to reduce barriers to entry. While we had some guiding principle—laid out in our Terms of Reference—we understood the need to be flexible given the wide variety of institutions and organisations we were engaging with.
However, taking into account spillover and transfer effects, including a boost to technology development, global knowledge, and norms diffusion, the benefits initiated by this policy experiment might have a much greater combined effect—although the precise magnitude appears impossible to quantify. Beyond that, a clear conceptual understanding of the dynamics of climate governance reality enables a deliberate polycentric approach to climate mitigation governance to “exploit” some of the specific mechanisms identified in this article.
H Youssef Accounting specializes in the construction trade sector and thrives on working with clients that share the same values. Michael discusses how his accounting firm has handled business, marketing, serving the community, https://www.bookstime.com/ and supporting employees during the COVID-19 pandemic. Heather Porter, Marketing Director of Drill Down Solution shares how offshore employees help to increase profits and contribute to happier onshore employees.
In sum, a polycentric approach is no silver bullet for realizing collective action and effective mitigation. In this it is like traditional—state-centric top-down or decentralized—approaches to climate governance. The intrinsic difficulty of abstractly evaluating an increasingly polycentric approach to climate governance means that its general environmental and cost effectiveness should not be overestimated. To echo Polanyi, many actors will have to take up the polycentric task to achieve, at any rate, a measure of collective success. Different actor preferences relevant to the introduction of mitigation measures are influenced by the specific cost-benefit matrices (including co-costs and co-benefits of mitigation actions) of specific actors. Therefore, tailoring climate policies to site-specific preferences not only avoids the potential inefficiencies of uniform nationally or globally introduced regulations, but also acknowledges the existence of differential preference structures . A prominent example of a local co-benefit of greenhouse gas mitigation with local public good characteristics is combating local air pollution (McCollum et al. 2013).
What’s more, the company has leadership teams and account managers in every country where they have their presence. TOA Global’s services are incredibly fair compared to other BPO and outsourcing services in Gold Coast, Australia. TOA Global has over 2000 committed team members in the junior and senior accounting, specialized, administrative, and bookkeeping positions for over 600 companies across the globe. We understand the value of your time and the trust your clients place in you. Our model has been to remain light touch and flexible—our Terms of Reference are brief, and while they include model role descriptions for Local Network Leads and Institutional Leads, these are intended to be a starting point, rather than prescriptive. We recognise that while there is value in coordinating activity, each discipline, institution, and country will have different specific needs. A number of academic colleagues began discussing how best to achieve this and lobbied funders for support.
Local networks emerged very rapidly, and institutions and other organisations joined much more quickly than anticipated. The distributed nature of UKRN helped us to manage this, but we are acutely aware of the need to support our local networks, in particular, and to ensure the contribution of Local Networks Leads is recognised. There was already a large community of researchers engaged with these issues, many of whom volunteered to form local networks at their institutions. Our target was to recruit 10 institutions as institutional members in 3 years, but we recruited this number in less than a year , driven perhaps by the Research Excellence Framework in the UK, which provided an incentive for institutions to join. By first calculating the displacements of each center with respect to the others, and then adjusting each actor’s own actions with regard to a specific task in relation to the actions of other relevant actors, an approximate polycentric order can be realized . According to Polanyi, even living organisms solve polycentric tasks by “achieving a balance by reacting to the whole range of impulses that reach it from all the ‘centres’” .
Retail investors sell carbon-intensive firms in such weather, and return patterns are unlikely to be driven by changes in fundamentals. Our study sheds light on peoples’ collective beliefs and actions about global warming. Building upon recent work on other major fossil fuel companies, we report new archival research and primary source interviews describing how Total responded to evolving climate science and policy in the last 50 years. Additionally, we find that Exxon, through the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association , coordinated an international campaign to dispute climate science and weaken international climate policy, beginning in the 1980s. This represents one of the first longitudinal studies of a major fossil fuel company’s responses to global warming to the present, describing historical stages of awareness, preparation, denial, and delay. Since opening our doors in 2013, we’ve been enabling savvy accounting firms to scale, grow and deliver great service to their clients by supplying them with highly skilled people. We have more than 2,000 dedicated team members working for more than 750 accounting firms worldwide in senior and junior accounting, bookkeeping, specialist , and administrative roles.
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TOA Global can help you cut costs by providing offshore teams or team members to whom you can outsource numerous roles and tasks at no extra charges. The company can also supplement your team and assist you in hiring, training, and performing resource management tasks while attending to your clients. Recent observations of elevated tree mortality following climate extremes, like heat and drought, raise concerns about climate change risks to global forest health. We currently lack both sufficient data and understanding to identify whether these observations represent a global trend toward increasing tree mortality. Here, we document events of sudden and unexpected elevated tree mortality following heat and drought events in ecosystems that previously were considered tolerant or not at risk of exposure. These events underscore the fact that climate change may affect forests with unexpected force in the future.
In a similar vein, renewables technology transfer promotes the implementation of renewable energies around the globe . These explorative and diffusing practices can be driven by state and nonstate actors in various forms so as to foster innovation in several areas, from technology development to the refinement of policies and institutional design —all possibly reducing the costs of mitigation. Strengthening and actively implementing these multiple practices from the bottom to the top is of key concern for a polycentric approach and is another distinctive merit, relative to traditional international climate governance approaches. Some authors have further developed Ostrom’s polycentric account, relating the concept to other research streams and elaborating on different components and applications in the context of climate governance. Focusing on the international level, Galaz et al. draw on network research to elaborate on polycentricity as a matter of degree to explain the relational character and diverging densities of networks. Paavola highlights the role of hybrid and voluntary forms of climate governance as an important part of a wider polycentric governance strategy for climate change, characterized by an increasing institutional diversity at all policy levels.
As is prominently illustrated by an encyclical of Pope Francis , religious groups also contribute to the emerging climate governance regime, created globally by a multitude of actors at different scales, in different localities, and on different policy levels . Another prominent feature of a polycentric approach, and a recurring element in the Ostromean literature, is the strong emphasis on trust and the accompanying mechanisms to enhance the building of trust. Trust is seen as a very relevant resource for enhancing cooperation (especially for collective-action problems like climate mitigation), which can be built better across personal relationships . Recently, Cole showed how in a polycentric approach, the enhanced direct communication of individuals positively affects trust levels, which themselves substantially determine levels of cooperation. In addition, a positive experience of cooperation further enhances mutual reputation and trust, resulting in even higher cooperation levels .
If one actor fails or refuses to act on a problem, others can step in within their jurisdiction, sector, or issue area. Economically, path dependencies in transport or energy infrastructure play an important role in restricting options and influencing assessments and decisions about the most appropriate technology, transport, or energy policy. Adapting policies to these site-specific constraints, restructuring subsidies and standards, or exploiting site-specific co-benefits (e.g., enhancing public transport or a clean energy supply) can foster policy implementation despite the given constraints. Since authority for planning and permitting the development of physical infrastructure often lies within local or state jurisdictions, recognition of those actors’ conditions is crucial . For example, there is significant concern that mitigation efforts will hamper attempts to effectively fight poverty. This tension between economic costs and societal benefits is fundamental in climate politics but is also expressed differently in every specific context .
Our medium-term strategy was to use this funding to establish UKRN, and grow the Network, while seeking more substantial funding by the end of that initial 3-year period. In July 2021, we were awarded £4.5 million by Research England (with an additional £4 million in-kind contribution from partners) to continue our activities for a further 5 years, focused on embedding open research practices across our partner institutions and, ultimately, the wider sector . Multiple solutions to the same underlying problem may be generated, and gaps may remain, if this change is allowed to develop entirely organically. There is certainly space for multiple potential solutions, so that innovation can flourish (adaptive radiation!). But there is also a need for some degree of coordination and harmonisation. For example, if an institution begins to incentivise open research practices, by including these in promotion criteria, researchers at that institution may be at a disadvantage if they subsequently move to a different institution where these practices are not rewarded.
Find out how offshore resourcing can give your firm back valuable hours in one meeting.
Aly Garrett and Lee Duffield of All In Advisory walk us through their experience hiring an offshore team, what they put in place to make sure both offshore and local team members would benefit from their decision to outsource, and how it has resulted in business growth. All In Advisory offers innovation and business advisory expertise, making it a recognized leader in the tourism industry and cloud revolution space. There is considerable diversity across and within these networks—a range of countries with very different national systems and research cultures, and from small to large institutions that also differ along a range of other dimensions. This also allows us to introduce a range of perspectives—in particular across disciplines—so that researchers in different fields can learn from one another. The specific solutions and activities can be local, but the coordination and mutual support are national and, increasingly, international.
By evaluating these impulses, each “center” or actor produces a solution to the polycentric task—or “achieves, at any rate, a measure of success in this direction” . TOA Global is a people-driven company that solely focuses on the accounting sector.
John Liston of Liston Newton Advisory shares with us his experience in outsourcing and onshoring over the years. Liston Newton Advisory focuses on working with small business owners and their needs in taxes, accounting, wealth planning, and lending. The company has several offices in Australia and John talks about their motivations in outsourcing to help grow the company. Husband-and-wife team Jonathan and Shannon Badger of Badger CPA talk with us about what led them to embark on their outsourcing journey, the quality of candidates they’ve encountered in partnering with TOA Global, and what an increase in capacity has meant for their business and for them personally. Badger CPA primarily focuses on small to mid-size businesses, and controller and CFO services, with tax planning and compliance layered onto those services. Institute of Accounting, ensures your offshore team is up to date on the latest developments and technologies specific to the accounting industry via short courses, industry qualifications and certifications.
Building largely on the classical theory of collective action from economic rational-choice theory, those conceptualizations assume nonexisting or weak incentives for international cooperation. Rational, self-interested nation-states are seen to be stuck in a prisoner’s dilemma situation, and restructuring incentives to mitigate free-riding incentives via institutional design is known to be difficult (Edenhofer et al. 2015).